Later investments in more mature technologies has proven itself in many ways a superior strategy, especially for countries lagging behind the pioneers of industrial development. Digital innovation is facilitated by advanced technologies, including artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics, and cloud computing. It uses these technological resources to discover new opportunities and fuel growth for businesses or organizations, focusing on making the most of the tools and systems already in place. However, experience shows (e.g., Mansfield, 1968) that technological innovation draws on the fundamental knowledge produced by research. Moreover, as the technological content of new products and processes increases, the relationship between innovating organizations and basic science research becomes more active.
Figure 6 shows that for all regions, the business sector shows the highest expenditure, followed by the education and government sectors. In Europe and Central Asia, there is a greater proportion of expenditure from the higher education sector than the government sector. In terms of government expenditure on R&D, the Sub-Saharan region shows the highest spending, while the region of North America shows the lowest.
We help our clients become future ready with superior technology and tools for utilizing and extracting value from data. BNY Mellon collaborates with the world’s leading companies—from fintech to big tech—to deliver more capabilities for our clients, empowering them to make objective choices that unlock their potential. For example, through our strategic alliances, BNY Mellon helps deliver flexibility and choice to clients throughout their investment lifecycle by integrating with the world’s leading front-end service providers.
slot88 can also fund further development to cross the second Valley of Death that stands prior to initial deployment as a commercial-scale demonstration. However, before investing at that stage, VC investors need to perceive an exit path to cash out of a technology by handing it off to private equity, public markets, or an incumbent industry buyer that can take the technology to a commercially deployable scale. 19.As a final test of the robustness of these results, we examined the effect on the interaction between the gradient and progress if we randomly matched drugs to diseases (rather than matching drugs to the disease for which they are indicated).
We analyzed the association between R&D expenditure and international cooperation in patents (Figs. 24, 25, and 26). Figure 23 shows the USA leading in business expenditure on R&D in the pharmaceutical industry. In exports, Germany takes the lead, followed by the USA, the UK, France, Switzerland, and Belgium. China and Japan have very low exports but moderate expenditure, while Canada and Korea are low in both exports and expenditure in the pharmaceutical industry. 15 illustrates, the majority of countries in our study show less than 1% of patents are invented abroad. As for the number of patent applications filed under European Patent Office (EPO) (Fig. 12), the USA leads Japan, Germany, and France.
France, Germany, the UK, and others show high exports and relatively low expenditure. Japan and China are low in both expenditure and exports in the aerospace industry. Figure 22 shows the exports and business expenditure on R&D for the computer/electronic/optical industry. We then looked for significant associations among sets of innovation indicators. We started with expenditure on R&D and the R&D personnel in the sectors of business, government, and higher education.
Now more than ever, the role of digital development in USAID’s work is undeniable, as reflected in the recently released, first Agency-wide Digital Strategy. We design challenges and prizes for development that inspire and incentivize creative problem solvers around the world to test and scale solutions to a broad range of development challenges. Most contemporary pursuits of innovation aim to find the most talented people in the world and let them compete with each other to win the vast rewards that can come with their inventions. And, we assume, those people need to be offered incentives in the form of great wealth and power. Tokyo University of Science is analysing data from 20,000 students to see where their gaps in achievement lie in relation to their career goals, said Atsuo Yasumori, managing director of the university’s board. This sort of insight can help universities manage administration more effectively, added Jiang Wu, executive vice-president of Tongji University.